Notes For Class 11 Chapter 16 Digestion And Absorption Biology Download In Pdf
Digestion : The process in alimentary canal by which the complex food is converted mechanically and biochemically into simple substances suitable for absorption and assimilation. Food : A substance which on taken and digested in the body provides mate- rials for growth, repair, energy, reproduction, resistance from disease or regulation of body processes.
Thecodont : The teeth embedded in the sockets of the jaw bone. e.g., in mammals. Diphyodont : The teeth formed twice in life time e.g., in mammals.
Peristalsis : The involuntary movement of the gut by which the food bolus is pushed forward.
Degluttition : The process of swallowing of food bolus. It is partly voluntary and partly involuntary.
Ruminants : The herbivours animals (e.g., cow, buffalo etc.) which have symbiotic bacteria in the rumen of their stomach which synthesize enzymes to hydrolyse cellulose into short chains fally acids.
Diarrhoea : The abnormal frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faecal matter from the bowel.
Vomitting : The ejection of stomach contents through the mouth, caused by antiperistalsis.
Dysentry : Frequent watery stools often with blood and mucus and with pain, fever and causes dehydration.
Chyme : The semifluid mass into which food is converted by gastric secretion and which passes from the stomach into the small intestine.
Goblet cells : The cells of intestinal mucosal epithelium which secrete mucus.
Glissons capsule : The connective tissue sheath which covers the hepatic lobules of liver.
Hepatic lobules : The structural and functional units of liver containing hepatic cells which are arranged in the form of cords.
Sphincter of Oddi : The sphincter which guard the opening of common hepato-pancreatic duct.
Villi : The small finger-like folding in the innermost layer of the alimentary canal which increase the absorption surface area.
PEM : Protein Energy Malnutrition.
Basic steps of Holozoic Nutrition :
(1) Ingestion : Intake of food.
(2) Digestion : Breaking down of complex organic food materials into simpler, smaller soluble molecules.
(3) Absorption and assimilation : Absorption of digested food into blood or lymph and its use in the body cells for synthesis of complex components. (4) Egestion : Elimination of undigested food as faeces.
Digestive glands : (A) Salivary glands (found in mouth).
Three types are :
Secrete saliva which contains ptyalin (Salivary amylase)
(B) Pancreas : Secretes pancreatic juice.
(C) Liver : Secretes bile.
(D) Gastric glands : Secretes gastric juice.
(E) Intestinal glands : Secretes intestinal juice or succus entericus.
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