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Animal Kingdom Classification System Class 11 Notes Download Pdf

Animal Kingdom Classification System Class 11 Notes Download In PDF

Chapter 4 Animal Kingdom

Animal Kingdom Classification System
Class 11 Notes Download Pdf


    1         Symmetry :   Distribution of body parts around a
    2         hypothetical axis. :   Ostia : Minute pores on body of sponge.
    3         Osculum :   Large outlet in body of sponge.
    4         Hermaphrodite :   Bisexual.
    5         Polyp :   Sessile cylindrical form of coelenterate (Asexual).
    6         Medusa :   Umbrella shaped free swimming sexual stage of coelenterate.
    7         Acoelomate :   No coelom.
    8         Pseudocoelom :   With false coelom (cavity not underlined by mesoderm).
    9         Dioecious :   Unisexual.
    10         Operculum :   Cover over gills in fish
    11         Notochord :   Dorsal rod like bone
    12         Homoiotherms :   Warm blooded.
    13         Bioluminescence :   Emit light.

-Levels of organisation

     
    i) Cellular level- loose cell aggregates, small division of labour eg. Sponges
    ii) Tissues grouped into organs eg.
Coelenterate.
    iii) Organ level-Tissues grouped into organs eg. Higher animals.

Circulatory system

    a) Open type- No blood vessels, blood flows in sinuses.
    b) Close type- Blood flows in closed vessels.

Symmetry

    Sponges.
    - Asymmetrical – No symmetry eg. Sponges.
    -  
    - Radial Symmetry – Any plane passing through central axis divides body in two equal halves.
    - Bilateral Symmetry – Body can be divided into two equal halves through one plane only.

Diploblastic and Triploblastic organisation –

   
    - Two embryonic layers – Ectoderm and Endoderm – Diploblastic.
    - Three embryonic layers- Ectoderm, Mesoderm and endoderm- Triploblastic.

Coelom –

     
    - Body cavity lined by mesoderm- True Coelom.
    - Body cavity not lined by mesoderm Pseudo Coelom.
    -
No body cavity – Acoelomate.

Segmentation –

     
    - True segments- Metameres (Body divided internally and externally).

Notochord –

     
    - With notochord – Chordates.
    - Without notochord – Non-Chordates.
 

Classification of Animals –

     


Classification of Animals


Phylum Porifera –

 
       
  - Marine.  
    - Multicellular, cellular grade body.                                                   
    - Asymmetrical.  
    - Water canal system for food, respiration and excretion.  
    - Body wall with many pores – Ostia.  
    - Diploblastic.  
    - Water enters through Ostia and goes out through Osculum.  
    - Skeleton of spicules or spongin fibres.  
    - Hermaphrodite.  
    - Reproduction asexual by fragmentation and sexual by gametes.  
    - Fertilisation is internal, development indirect.  
    - eg. Sycon, Spongilla, Euspongiaetc.  
sycon
 

Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria) –

 
         
    - Aquatic (marine), Sessile or free living.  
    - Presence of Cnidoblasts or Cnidocytes – Stinging cells.  
    - Cnidoblasts are for defence, anchorage or predation.  
    - Tissue level body organisation.  
    - Diploblastic.  
    - Central gastro vascular cavity, single opening mouth.  
    - Two body forms – Polyp (Asexual), Medusa (Sexual) stage.  
    -
eg Hydra, Physalia, Obelia, Aurelia etc.

 
Phylum Ctenophora (sea walnuts or comb jellies) –
 

Phylum Ctenophora (sea walnuts or comb jellies) –

         
    - Marine, radial symmetry, Diploblastic, tissue grade.  
    - Eight external rows of Comb Plates.  
    - Bioluminescence.  
    - eg. Ctenoplana, Pleurobrachia etc.  
    - Reproduction sexual.  
 
Flat worms.jpg" wi
   

Phylum Platehelminthes (Flat worms) –

 
         
    - Body dorsiventrally flattened.  
    - Endoparasite.  
    - Triploblastic, bilateral symmetry.  
    - Acoelomate  
    -
-Flame cells- for excretion & osmoregulation.

 
    -
-Flame cells- for excretion & osmoregulation.

 
    - Hermaphrodite  
    - Reproduction – Sexual - Fertilisation internal.  
    - Organ level organisation.  
    - eg. Taeniasolium(Tape worm), Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke).  
   
Phylum Aschelminthes (Round Worm) –  
         
    - Free living or parasitic, aquatic and terrestrial. Bilateral symmetry and Triploblastic.  
    - Pseudocoelomate. Muscular pharynx.  
    - Male smaller and thinner than female. Fertilisation internal, development direct or indirect.  
    -
eg. Ascarislumbricoides, Wucherariabancroftiietc.

 
   
Phylum Annelida –  
         
    - Aquatic or terrestrial.  
    - Free living or parasitic.  
    -

Organ system level body bilateral symmetry and Triploblastic coelomate.
 
    - Nephridia for excretion.  
    - Ventral double Nerve cord.  
    - Monoecious or Dioecious.  
    -
Reproduction – Sexual. eg.

 
    - Earthworm(Pheretima),Nereis etc.  
    - Metameric segmentation.  
   

Phylum Arthropoda( Jointed Legs) –

 
         
    - Largest phylum.  
    - Bilateral symmetry, Triploblastic, segmented coelomate.  
    - Body - Head, Thorax and Abdomen(three parts).  
    - Blood without haemoglobin and circulatory system open.  
    - Respiration by gills, book lungs and trachea.  
    - Excretion by malpighian tubules.  
   

Phylum Mollusca –

 
         
    - Soft body animals. Second largest phylum.  
    -
Aquatic, bilateral symmetry, triploblastic, coelomate. Body unsegmented divided into head, muscular foot and visceral hump.

 
    - Soft mantle over visceral hump. Respiration and excretion through gills.  
    -
Unisexual.

 
    - Sensory tentacles on head and Radula in mouth.  
    - Oviparous.  
    - -eg.Pila, Octopus etc  
   

PHYLUM  ECHINODERMATA

 
         
    - Body surface spiny, (due to calcareous ossicles)  
    - Marine , organ system level, adult radially symmetrical, triploblastic coelomate.  
      Mouth ventral  
    1 Water vascular system present for locomotion, capture and transport of food and respiration.  
    2 Sexes separate fertilization external, development indirect  
    - e.g.  Asterias (Starfish), Sea urchin (Echinus), etc.  
   

PHYLUM HEMICHORDATA

 
         
    1 Marine  
    2 Bilateral symmetry, triploblastic, coelomate  
    3 Body  
    i Proboscis  
    ii Collar  
    iii Trunk      
    4 Circulatory system open  
    5 Gills for respiration  
    6 Proboscis gland for excretion  
      Sexes separate fertilization external, development indirect, e.g. Balanoglossus.                         

 

PHYLUM- CHORDATA

 
Distinguishing features  
    1

Presence of Notochord
 
    2 Dorsal hollow nerve cord
 
    3 Paired pharyngeal gills slits  
    4 Post anal tail present  
    5 Heart is ventral  
 

SUB PHYLA –


 
    1 Urochordata or Tunicata, Notochord only in larval tail  e.g.  Ascidia
 
    2 Cephalochordata notochord head to tail in all stage  e.g. Branchiostoma  
    3 Vertebrata:  Notochord replaced by a vertebral column.
 

 

SUB PHYLUM- VERTEBRATA

AGNATHA-without jaw  
    CLASS- Cyclostomata-  
    Ectoparasite on fish  
    - C ircular mouth  
    - No scales and paired fins  
    -

Marine but go in fresh water for spawning and die. Larva returns to ocean.

 
    - Eg. Petromyzon, Myxine.  

Gnathostomata – with jaws

 
    Class - Chondrichthyes  
    - Aquatic and terrestrial both.  
    - Two pairs of limbs.  
    - No neck.  
    - Body has head and trunk only.  
    - No external ear, tympanum on surface.  
    - Heart three chambered.  
    - Cloaca present.  
    - Respiration by gills, skin and lungs.  
    - Sexes separate.  
    - Fertilisation external, development direc  
    - eg. Ranatigrina, Bufo, Hyla etc.  

Class Reptilia –

 
    - Creeping or crawling mode of locomotion.  
    - Skin with scales/scutes.  
    - Tympanum on surface.  
    - Heart three chambered (Four chambered in crocodile).

 
    - Fertilisation internal, development direct.
 
    - eg. Chelone, Testudo, Naja, Hemidactylus etc.  

Class Aves –

    -

presence of feather, beak and forelimb in form of wing.

 
    -

Hind limb adapted to clasping, walking and swimming.

 
    -

No glands on skin (only oil gland at tail base).

 
    -

Hollow bones (pneumatic).

 
    -

Air sacs connected to lungs to supplement respiration.

 
    -

Crop and gizzard are additional chambers in digestive system.

 
    -

Warm blooded.

 
    -

Heart four chambered.

 
    - Sexes separate.  
    - Fertilisation internal and development direct.eg.  
    -  Columba, Psittacula etc.  

Class Mammalia –

 
    -

Aquatic, terrestrial and aerial.

 
    -

Mammary glands present for milk production.

 
    - Two pairs of limbs.  
    - Skin with hair.  
    - Ear with pinna.  
    - Homoiothermic.  
    - Heart four chambered.  
    -

Excretion by kidneys.

 
    - .Sexes separate.  
     

Internal fertilisation, vivipary (exception Platypus).

 
    - eg. Whale, Rat , Man, Tiger etc.  
    - Respiration by lungs  


Class 9 Science Notes Chapter 10 GRAVITATION


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