Biological Classification Kingdoms PDF Free Download Notes
|Thallus||:||Plant body without true stem, root & Leaf.|
|Plankton||:||Organism living in salty areas.|
|Halophiles||:||Plants floating passively in water current.|
|Chemosynthetic||:||Using chemical reactions as energy source|
|Heterotrophic||:||Unable to synthesise own food and dependent on others for food.|
|Pathogenic||:||Main body of slime mould.|
|Plasmodium||:||Organism feeding on dead & decaying organic matter.|
|Saprophyte||:||Organism which depend on living host for food|
|Parasite||:||Two organisms living together|
|Symbionts||:||benifitting each other.|
|Plasmogamy||:||Fusion of cytoplasm.|
|KaryogamyÂ||:||Fusion of nuclei.|
|DikaryonÂ Â Â Â||:||A cell with two nuclei.|
|Dikaryophase||:||Stage of fungus with dikaryotic cells.|
|IsogamousÂ Â||:||: Morphologically identical gametes|
|AnisogamousÂ Â Â||:||Morphologically non identical Gametes.|
|OogamousÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â||:||Female gamete oosphere and Male gamete motile.|
1.Aristotle classified organisms for the first time.
2. Two kingdom system includes â€“ Plantae &Animalia.
1. No difference in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.
2.Heterotrophic Fungi kept in Plantae.
3. Five Â kingdom Â system Â is Â given Â by R.H Â Whittaker Â (1969) Â viz. Â Monera, Â Protista, Â Fungi, Â Plantae Â and Animalia.
1. Prokaryotic unicellular organisms.
2. Most abundant.
3. Also live in extreme habitats viz. Hotsprings, Snow etc. as endoparasite etc.
4. eg. Bacteria.
- Some bacteria are autotrophic others are heterotrophic.
- Cellwall different from other bacteria.
- Live in most harsh habitats eg. Halophile.
- Methanogens are found in the gut of ruminants and produce methane (CH4) gas.
- True bacteria.
- Rigid cellwall with or without flagellum.
- Cyanobacteria( Blue green algae) are also included in this group.
- Cyanobacteria are Photosynthetic autotrophs, unicellular, colonial or filamentous, with gelatinous sheath.
- Have Heterocyst for N2fixation eg. Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria, Rivularia, Gloeotrichia etc.
- Mostly bacteria are Heterotrophs and are useful and harmful both to humans.
-Reproduction occurs by fission. Also by primitive type of sexual reproduction, Â by transferring DNA piece from one bacterial cell(+ strain) to other (- strain) (called cell Transduction).
- Smallest unicellular anaerobic organisms having no cellwall.
- Pathogenic in plants and animals.
- Unicellular eukaryotes.
- Primarily aquatic.
- Some have cilia and flagella.
- Reproduction sexual and asexual both.
- Fresh water or marine microscopic Planktons.
- Mostly photosynthetic and cheif producer in ocean eg. Diatomsand Golden algae (Desmids).
- Diatoms with cellwalls in two halves having Silica (indistructible).
- Diatomaceous earth is formed by cellwall Â deposits of Diatoms and used in polishing, filtration of oils and syrups, fire bricks and explosives.
- Photosynthetic yellow , green, blue, brown or red in colour.
- One longitudinal and other transverse two flagella.
- Gonyaulax causes Red tides.
- Fresh water forms.
- No cellwall, outer most layer pellicle.
- Two unequal flagella.
- Photosynthetic but also heterotrophic in absence of light ( Mixotroph).
- Body is an aggregation called â€žPlasmodiumâ€ź ( multinucleate, without cellwall, irregular in shape and can Â spreadover several feet ).
- Plasmodium produces fruiting body having spores with walls which are highly resistant and spread through wind.
- Fresh water or marine unicellular heterotrophs.
- Primitive relative of animals.strong
(a) Amoeboid Protozoans â€“
- Free living or parasites.
- Pseudopodia (false feet) formed eg. Amoeba ,Entamoeba.
- Free living or Parasitic with flagella eg.Trypanosoma( causessleeping sickness).
1. Ciliated Protozoans â€“
- With cilia eg. Paramecium(sleeper animalcule).
(d) Sporozoans â€“
- Spore like stage in life eg. Plasmodium vivax.
Kingdom Fungi â€“
- Fungi are a group of achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms with cell wall without cellulose.
- Saprophyte or Parasite or Symbiotic.
- Useful and Harmful both.
- Prefer to grow in warm and humid places.
- Unicellular (eg. Yeast) to multicellular filamentous body called mycelium.
- One unit of Â mycelium called hypha .
- Mycelia maybe coenocytic (no septum) or septate.
- Lichens :â€“ Symbiotic association of fungus and algae.
- Mycorrhiza ;â€“ Symbiotic association of fungi with root of higher plants eg. Pinus.
- Reproduction :â€“Vegetative : by fragmentation and by spores.Sexual: by gametes.
- Three steps in sexual reproduction
1. Plasmogamy :â€“ fusion of protoplasm.
2 .Karyogamy :- fusion of nuclei.
3. Meiosis of zygote.
- Grow on aquatic places or decaying wood or damp places or obligate parasite.
- Mycelium aseptate, coenocytic.- Reproduction - asexual by zoospores or aplanospores. Sexual by zygospores.
-Unicellular (eg. Yeast) or multicellular
-Saprophytic or parasitic.
-Maybe coprophillus (growing on dung) eg. peziza.
-Mycelium septate and branched.
-Reproduction â€“ asexual by exogenously produced conidia.
-sexually by Ascospares produced in asci present in fruiting body called Ascocarp.
-egAspergillus, Claviceps, Neurospora, Saccharomyces (yeast) etc.
Basidiomycetes (club fungi) â€“
- Grow on soil , logs or parasites ( rusts and smuts).
- Mycelium septate and branched and of two types
- Uninucleate 2) Dikaryophase.
- Reproduction â€“ vegetative by fragmentation sexualby two somatic cells giving rise to Dikaryophase.
- Dikaryophase makes fruiting body Basidiocarp having Basidia.
- Inside basidia (singular basidium)
- Karyogamy and meiosis occours.
- Meiosis results in formation of four basidiopores.
eg. Agaricus (mushroom), Ustilago (smut fungi), Puccinia (rust fungus).
- It is formed class â€“ Group of Fungi whose complete life cycle is not known.-Saprophyte/parasite , mostly decomposers.- eg. Alternaria, colletotrichum, Trichoderma.
- Eukaryotic, chlorophyll bearing autotrophic organisms.
- Only few members partialheterotrophs eg. Â Insectivorus plants (Bladder wort and Venus flytrap).
- Few parasites eg. Cuscuta
- Reproduction â€“ vegetative,asexual and sexual.
- Life cycle shows alternation of generation.
- eg. Algae, Bryophytes,Pteridophyte, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.
Kingdom Animalia â€“
- Eukaryotic, Heterotrophic organisms.
- No chloroplast and no cell wall.
-Holozoic mode of nutrition
- Definite shape and size and capable of locomotion.
- sexual in general
- eg. frog, cockroach, cow, man etc.
- Viruses, Viroids and Lichens
- Viruses Connecting link between living and non living.
- Non cellular structure consisting of protein coat and Nucleic acid
- Can reproduce within a host cell.
- Host cell may be killed.
- Viruses which infect bacteria are called Bacteriophage.
- Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)-
- Protein coat: - capsid consists of capsomers.
- Viruses can cause diseases viz. Mumps, Small pox, Herpes, Influenza, AIDS etc.
- Free RNA without protein coat.Lichens
- Composite organisms.
-Symbiotic association between Algae (Phycobiont),Fungi (Mycobiont).
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