Cell The Unit Of Life Notes Download In Pdf For Class 11 Biology
Gram positive bacteria : Bacteria that take up gram stain.
Gram negative bacteria : Bacteria that do not take up gram stain.
Prokaryotic cells : Cells which lack a well defined nucleus and membrane bound cell organelles. e.g., bacteria, cyanobacteria, mycoplasma.
Eukaryotic cells : Cells which have a well defined nucleus and membrane bound cell organelles. e.g., all protists, plants, animals and fungi cells.
Passive transport : Transport of molecules across a membrane along the con- centration gradient, i.e., from higher to lower concentration without the consumption of energy.
Active transport : Transport of molecules against concentrataion gradient, i.e., from lower to higher concentration with the consumption of energy (ATP).
Polyribosome/polysome : A chain like structure formed when several ribosome are attached to a single mRNA. PPLO : Pleuro Pneumonia Like
Organisms. Cell : Cell is the structural and functional unit of life. Cell Theory was formu- lated by Scheleiden and Schwann and was modified by
Rudolf virchow states :
(a) All living organisms are composed of cells and products of cells.
(b) All cells arise from pre-existing cells. Prokaryotic cells Genetic material is not enveloped by nuclear envelope.
Many bacteria contain extra chromosomal DNA − plasmids. Cell Envelope Prokaryotic cells have a chemically complex cell envelope which consists of a tightly bound 3 layered structure i.e., outermost glycocalyx followed by cell wall and then plasma membrane.
A specialised structure − mesosome is formed by the extension of plasma membrane into the cell. Mesosomes help in cell wall formation, DNA replication and distribution to daughter cells, respiration, secretion process, to increase surface area of plasma-membrane and enzymatic content.
Bacterial cells may be motile or non-motile. Motile bacterias have flagella composed of three parts − filament, hook and basal body. Pili and fimbriae are surface structures which do not play any role in motality. These structures help the bacteria to attach with rocks and the host tissues.
70S ribosomes are associated with plasma membrane and is made of two subunits − 50S and 30S. Ribosomes are site of protein synthesis.
Possess an organized nucleus with nuclear envelope and have a variety of complex locomotory and cytoskeletal structures.
Singer and Nicolson (1972) gave ‘Fluid mosaic model’. According to this the quasi-fluid nature of lipid enables lateral movement of proteins within the overall bilayer
Functions : Selectively permeable.
Cell Wall is a non-living rigid structure which gives shape to the cell and protects cell from mechanical damage and infection, helps in cell-to-cell interaction and provides barrier to undesirable macromolecules.
Cell wall of algae is made of cellulose, galactans, mannans and minerals like calcium carbonate. Plant cell wall consists of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins and proteins.
Middle lamella is made of calcium pectate which holds neighbouring cells together.
Plasmodesmata connect the cytoplasm of neighbouring cells.
Endoplasmic Recticulum (ER) Consists of network of tiny tubular structures. ER divides the intracellular space into two distinct compartments − luminal (inside ER) and extra luminal (cytoplasm).
(i) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) :
• Ribosomes attached to outer surface.
• Involved in protein synthesis and secretion.
(ii) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) :
• Lack ribosomes.
• Site for synthesis of lipid.
Golgi apparatus : Consists of cisternae stacked parallel to each other. Two faces of the organelle are convex cis or forming face and concave trans or maturing face.
Functions : Performs packaging of materials, to be delivered either to the intra-cellar targets or secreted outside the cell. Important site of formation of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Lysosomes : Membrane bound vesicular structures formed by the process of packaging in the golgi apparatus. Contain hydrolysing enzymes (lipases, proteases, carbohyrases) which are active in acidic pH. Also called ‘Suicidal Bag’.
Function : Intracellular digestion. Vacuoles : Membrane bound space found in the cytoplasm. Contain water, sap, excretory product, etc.
Function : In plants tonoplast (single membrane of vacuole) faciliates transport of ions and other substances. Contractile vacuole for excretion in Amoeba and food vacuoles formed in protistis for digestion of food.
Mitochondria : Double membrane structure. Outer membrane smooth and inner membrane forms a number of infoldings called cristae.
Function : Sites of aerobic respiration. Called ‘power houses’ of cell as produce cellular energy in the form of ATP. Matrix possesses single circular DNA molecule, a few RNA molecules, ribosomes (70S). It divides by fission.
Plastids : Found in plant cells and in euglenoides. Chloroplasts, chromoplasts and leucoplasts are 3 types of plastids depending on pigments contained.Chloroplasts are double membraned structure. Space limited by inner membrane is called stroma. Flattened membranous sacs called thylakoids in stroma. Chlorophyll pigments are present in thylakoids.
Function : Site of photosynthesis. Ribosomes Compased of RNA and proteins; without membrane. Eucaryotic ribosomes are 80S.
Function : Site of protein synthesis. Cilia and Flagella Cilia are small structures which work like oar, which help in movement. Flagella are longer and responsible for cell movement. They are covered with plasma membrane. Core is called axoneme which has 9 + 2 arrangement. Centrosome and Centrioles Centrosome contains two cylindrical structures called centrioles. Surrounded by amorphous pericentriolar material. Has 9 + 0 arrangement. Centrioles form the basal body of cilia or flagella and spindle fibres for cell division in animal cells.
Nucleus : With double membrane; nuclear pores; has chromatin, nuclear matrix and nucleoli (site for rRNA synthesis).
Chromatin : DNA + non histone proteins. Chromosomes (on basis of position of centromere) : Metacentric : Middle centromere.
Sub-metacentric : Centromere nearer to one end of chromosome.
Acrocentric : Centromere situated close to its end.
Telocentric : Has terminal centromere.
Satellite : Some chromosomes have non-staining secondary constrictions at a constant location, which gives the appearance of small fragment called satellite.
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