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Plant Growth and Development Notes for Class 11 Download in pdf

Notes For Class 11 Chapter 15 Plant Growth And Development Download In Pdf

Chapter 15 Plant Growth and Development Download in pdf

Chapter 15 : Plant Growth and Development

Notes For Class 11 Biology Download In PDF


POINTS TO REMEMBER


Abscission :
Shedding of plant organs like leaves, flowers and fruits etc. from the mature plant.


Apical dominance : Suppression of the growth of lateral buds in presence of apical bud.


Dormancy : A period of suspended activity and growth usually associated with low metabolic rate.


Photoperiodism : Response of plant to the relative length of day and night period to induce flowering.


Phytochrome : A pigment, which control the light dependent developmental process.


Phytohormone : Chemicals secreted by plants in minute quantities which influence the physiological activities.


Senescene : The last phase of growth when metabolic activities decrease.


Vernalisation : A method of promoting flowering by exposing the young plant to low temperature.


Growth : An irreversible permanent increase in size of an organ or its parts or even of an individual. Abbreviations IAA Indole acetic acid NAA Naphthalene acetic acid ABA Abscissic acid IBA Indole-3 butyric acid 2.4D 2.4 dichlorophenoxy acetic acid PGR Plant growth regulator


Measurement of growth : Plant growth can be measured by a variety of parameters like increase in fresh weight, dry weight, length, area, volume and cell number.


Phases of growth : The period of growth is generally divided into three phases, namely, meristamatic, elongation and maturation.
(i) Meristematic zone : New cell produced by metotic division at root-tip and shoot tip thereby show increase in size. Cells are rich in protoplasm and nuclei.
(ii) Elongation zone : Zone of elongation lies just behind the meristematic zone and concerned with enlargement of cells.
(iii) Maturation zone : The portion lies proximal to the phase of elongation. The cells of this zone attain their maximum size in terms of wall thickning and protoplasmic modification.


Growth rate : The increased growth per unit time is termed as growth rate. The growth rate shows an increase that may be arithmetic or geometrical.


Differentiation


Differentiation : A biochemical or morphological change in meristemic cell (at root apex and shoot apex) to differentiate into permanent cell is called differentiation.


Dedifferentiation : The phenomenon of regeneration of permanent tissue to become meristematic is called dedifferentiation.


Redifferentiation : Meristems/tissue are able to produces new cells that once again lose the capacity to divide but mature to perform specific functions.


PHYTO HORMONE OR PLANT GROWTH-REGULATOR


Growth promoting hormones : These are involved in growth promoting activities such as cell division, cell enlargement, flowering, fruiting and seed formation. e.g., Auxin, gibberellins, cytokinins. Growth inhibitor : Involved in growth inhibiting activities such as dormancy and abscission. e.g., Abscisic acid and Ethylene.


PHYTO HORMONE OR PLANT GROWTH-REGULATORa


Plant Growth and Development


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