Relational Database Management System PDF Free Download For Class 1
✯ Database Management System(DBMS) It is a computer based record keeping
system that stores the data centrally and manages data efficiently.
✯ Relational Data Model In this model the data is organized into tables called relations .The relationship is established betwee n 2 tables on the basis of common column.
✯ Network Data Model In this model the data is represented by collections of records and relationships among data are represented by links .
✯ Hierarchical Data Model In this model records are organized in the form of parent-child trees.
✯ Object Oriented Data Model in this model objects represent the data and associated operations where an object is identifiable entity with some characteristics and behavior.
✯ Normalization Is a process of attaining good database design by removing/reducing data anomalies.
✯ DDL: Data Definition Language o Part of the SQL that facilitates defining creation/modification etc. of database object such as tables, indexes, sequences etc.
✯ DML: Data Manipulation Language. o Part of the SQL that facilitates manipulation (additions/deletions/modification) of data which residing in the database tables.
✯ Meta Data
o Facts/data about the data stored in table.
✯ Data Dictionary
o A file containing facts/data about the data stored in table
✯ Relational Data Model
o In this model data is organized into tables i.e. rows and columns. These tables are called relations.
✯ The Network Data Model
o In this model data are represented by collection of records & relationships among data. The collections of records are connected to one another by means of links.
✯ The Hierarchical Data Model
o In this model records are organized as trees rather than arbitrary graphs.
✯ Object Oriented Data Model
o Data and associated operations are represented by objects. An object is an identifiable entity with some characteristics and behavior.
o Table in Database
o Pool of values from which the actual values appearing
o Any single row of a relation
o Any column of relation
o Number of attributes(fields) in a relation
o Number of tuples(rows) in a relation
o Virtual table that does not really exist in its own right but can be used to vies
✯ Primary Key:
o Set of one or more attributes that can uniquely identify tuples with in the relation.
✯ Candidate Key:
o A Candidate Key is the one that is capable of becoming Primary key i.e., a field or attribute that has unique value for each row in the relation
✯ Alternate Key :
o A candidate key that is not primary key is called alternate key.
✯ Foreign Key:
o A non-key attribute, whose values are derived from the primary key of some other table
✯ Integrity Constraints
o Integrity Constraints are the rules that a database must comply all the times. It determines what all changes are permissible to a database.
DATA TYPES IN MySQL
|Text||CHAR(size)||A fixed-length string between 1 and 255 characters in length right-padded with spaces to the specified length when stored. Values must be enclosed in single quotes or double quotes.||CHAR(size)||‘COMPUTE R’ ‘CBSE’|
|VARCHAR(size)||A variable-length string between 1 and 255 characters in length; for example VARCHAR(20).||VARCHAR (size)||‘SCIENCE’ ‘Informatics’|
|NUMERI||CDECIMAL(p,s)||It can represent number with or without the fractional part. The size argument has two parts : precision and scale. Precision (p) indicates the number of significant digits and scale (s)maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point.||Number(p,s)||58.63|
|INT||It is used for storing integer values||INT||164|
|Date||DATE||It represents the date including day, month and year between 1000-01-01 and 9999-12-31||YYYY-MMDD||2014-08-27|
The CHAR data-type stores fixed length strings such that strings having length smaller than the field size are padded on the right with spaces before being stored. The VARCHAR on the other hand supports variable length strings and therefore stores strings smaller than the field size without modification.
1-SQL Constraint is a condition or check applicable on a field or set of fields.
2- They can also be defined or modified after creating the tables.
3- When constraints are defined any data entering in the table is first checked to satisfy the condition specified in particular constraint if it is, only then table data set can be updated. If data updation/ insertion is violating the defined constraints, database rejects the data (entire record is rejected).
4- When a constraint is applied to a single column, it is called a column level constraint but if a constraint is applied on a combination of columns it is called a table constraint. Following constraints can be defined on a table in SQL:
|PRIMARY KEY||Used to create a primary key|
|UNIQUE||to create a unique key|
|NOT NULL||to define that column will not accept null values.|
|FOREIGN KEY/ REFERENCES||to define referential integrity with another table.|
|DEFAULT||to define the columns default value.|
|CHECK||to define the custom rule.|
Not Null and Default constraints can be applied only at column level rest all constraints can be applied on both column level and table levels.
Through USE keyword we can start any database Syntax:
USE <database Name>;
Example: USE ADDRESS;
Through Create table command we can define any table.
CREATE TABLE <tablename>
(<columnname><datatype>[(<Size>)], ......... );
CREATE TABLE ADDRESS(SNo integer, City char(25));
The rows are added to relations using INSERT command.
INSERT INTO <tablename>[<columnname>]
VALUES (<value>, <value>...);
INSERT INTO ADDRESS (SNo, City)
The SELECT command is used to make queries on the database. A query is a command that is given to produce certain specified information from the database table(s). The SELECT
command can be used to retrieve a subset of rows or columns from one or more tables. The syntax of Select Command is:
[GROUP BY <column_list>]
[ORDER BY <column_list [ASC|DESC ]>]
Example: SELECT * FROM ADDRESS WHERE SNo=100;
■ DISTINCT keyword eliminates redundant data SELECT DISTINCT City FROM ADDRESS;
SELECT * FROM ADDRESS;
• Using column aliases:
SELECT <column name> AS [columnalias][,...]
SELECT SNo, City AS “STUDENTCITY”
Keyword BETWEEN used for making range checks in queries. SELECT SNo, CITY FROM ADDRESS WHERE SNo BETWEEN 10 AND 20;
Keyword IN used for selecting values from a list of values. SELECT rno, sname FROM student WHERE rno IN (10, 20, 60);
Keyword LIKE used for making character
comparison using strings percent(%) matches any substring underscore(_) matches any character SELECT SNo, City FROM ADDRESS WHERE City LIKE ‘%ri’;
The NULL value in a column is searched for in a table using IS NULL in the WHERE clause (Relational Operators like =,<> etc cannot be used with NULL).
For example, to list details of all employees whose departments contain NULL (i.e., novalue), you use the command:
SELECT empno, ename
Where Deptno IS NULL;
It is used to sort the results of a query.
SELECT <column name> [, <column name>, .]
FROM <table name>
[WHERE <condition>] [ORDER BY <column name>];
SELECT * FROM ADDRESS WHERE SNo>50 ORDER BY City;
CREATE TABLE command is used to CREATE tables , the syntax is:
CREATE TABLE <Table_name>
( column_name 1 data_type1 [(size) column_constraints],
column_name 1 data_type1 [(size) column_constraints],
[<table_constraint> (column_names)] );
A Constraint is a condition or check applicable on a field or set of fields.
CREATE TABLE student (rollno integer NOT NULL );
CREATE TABLE student (rollno integer UNIQUE );
CREATE TABLE student (rollno integer NOT NULL, Sclass integer, Sname varchar(30),
Sclass DEFAULT 12 );
CREATE TABLE student (rollno integer CHECK (rollno>0), Sclass integer, Sname
CREATE TABLE student (rollno integer NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, Sclass integer,
CREATE TABLE teacher (Tid integer NOT NULL, FOREIGN KEY (Studentid )
REFRENCES student (Sid));
Existing data in tables can be changed with UPDATE command. The Update command is use to change the value in a table. The syntax of this command is:
SET column_name1=new_value1 [,column_name2=new_value2,……]
UPDATE student SET Sclass=12 WHERE Sname=’Rohan’;
The DELETE command removes rows from a table. This removes the entire rows, not
individual field values. The syntax of this command is
DELETE FROM <table_name>
e.g., to delete the tuples from EMP that have salary less than 2000, the following command is
DELETE FROM emp WHERE sal<2000;
To delete all tuples from emp table:
DELETE FROM emp;
A function is a special type of predefined command set that performs some operation and returns a single value. Single-row functions return a single result row for every row of a queried table. They are categorized into: Numeric functions, String functions, and Date and Time functions.
• POWER( ) : Returns the argument raised to the specified power. POW ( ) works the
(i) POW(2,4); Result:16
(ii) POW(2,-2); Result:0.25
(iii) POW(-2,3) Result: -8
• ROUND( ) : ROUND(X) Rounds the argument to the zero decimal place, Where as ROUND(X,d) Rounds the argument to d decimal places.
(i) ROUND(-1.23); Result: -1
(ii) ROUND(-1.58); Result: -2
(iii) ROUND(1.58); Result: 2
(iv)ROUND(3.798, 1);Result: 3.8
(v) ROUND(1.298, 0); Result: 1
(vi) ROUND(23.298, -1); Result: 20
• TRUNCATE( ) : Truncates the argument to specified number of decimal places.
(i) TRUNCATE(7.29,1 )Result: 7.2
(ii) TRUNCATE(27.29,-1) Result: 20
• LENGTH( ) : Returns the length of a string in bytes/no.of characters in string.
• CHAR( ) : Returns the corresponding ASCII character for each integer passed.
Example : CHAR(65) ;
Result : A
• CONCAT( ): Returns concatenated string i.e. it adds strings.
Example : CONCAT(‘Informatics’,’ ‘,‘Practices’);
Result : Informatics Practices
• INSTR( ): Returns the index of the first occurrence of substring.
Example : INSTR(‘Informatics’,’ mat’);
Result : 6(since ‘m’ of ‘mat’ is at 6th place)
• LOWER( )/ LCASE( ): Returns the argument after converting it in lowercase.
Result : informatics
• UPPER( )/ UCASE( ): Returns the argument after converting it in uppercase.
• LEFT( ) : Returns the given number of characters by extracting them from the left side of the given string.
Example : LEFT(‘INFORMATICS PRACTICES’, 3);
Result : INF
• MID( )/SUBSTR( ) : Returns a substring starting from the specified position in a given string.
Example: MID(‘INFORMATICS PRACTICES’,3,4);
Result : FORM
• LTRIM( ) : Removes leading spaces.
Example : LTRIM(' INFORMATICS');
• RTRIM( ): Removes trailing spaces.
Example : RTRIM('INFORMATICS ');
• TRIM( ) : Removes leading and trailing spaces.
Example: TRIM(' INFORMATICS ');
Result: 'INFORMATICS’ 3) Date/Time Functions
· CURDATE( ) : Returns the current date
Example: CURDATE( );
· NOW( ): Returns the current date and time
Example: NOW( );
Result: '2014-07-21 13:58:11'
· SYSDATE( ) : Return the time at which the function executes
Example: SYSDATE( );
· DATE( ): Extracts the date part of a date or date time expression
Example: DATE('2003-12-31 01:02:03');
· MONTH( ) :Returns the month from the date passed
· YEAR( ): Returns the year
Example: YEAR('2010-07-21'); Result: 2010
· DAYNAME( ): Returns the name of the weekday
Returns the day of the month (0-31)
· DAYOFWEEK( ): Returns the weekday index of the argument
Result: 4 (Sunday is counted as 1)
· DAYOFYEAR( ): Return the day of the year(1 -366)
· Aggregate or Group functions: MySQL provides Aggregate or Group functions which work on a number of values of a column/expression and return a single value as the result.
Some of the most frequently used Aggregate functions in MySQL are:
|No.||Name of the Function||purpose|
|1||MAX()||Returns the MAXIMUM of the values under the specified column/expression.|
|2||MIN()||Returns the MINIMUM of the values under the specified column/expression..|
|3||AVG()||Returns the AVERAGE of the values under the specified column/expression|
|4||4 SUM()|| Returns the SUM of the values under the specified
|5||COUNT()||Returns the COUNT of the number of values under the
■ The GROUP BY clause groups the rows in the result by columns that have the same
values. Grouping can be done by column name, or with aggregate functions in which case
the aggregate produces a value for each group.
■ The HAVING clause place conditions on groups in contrast to WHERE clause that place conditions on individual rows. While WHERE condition cannot include aggregate functions, HAVING conditions can do so.
The ALTER Table command is used to change the definition (structure) of existing table.
Usually , it can:
(i) Add columns to a table
(ii) Delete columns
(iii) Modify a column
The syntax of this command is:
For Add or modify column:
ALTER TABLE <Table_name> ADD/MODIFY <Column_defnition>;
For Delete column
ALTER TABLE <Table_name> DROP COLUMN <Column_name>;
♦ To add a new column address in EMP table command will be : ALTER TABLE EMP ADD (address char (30));
♦ To modify the size of sal column in EMP table, command will be: ALTER TABLE EMP MODIFY (sal number(9,2) );
♦ To delete column Address from Table EMP the command will be: ALTER TABLE EMP DROP COLUMN address;
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