Plant Kingdom Classification Class 11 Notes Chart,Diagram PDF Download
|1-||Phylogeny||-||Evolutionary history of organism .|
|2-||Zoospores||-||Motile spores with flagella .|
|3-||Gametophyte||-||Haploid stage of plant, producing gametes.|
|4-||Sporophyte||-||Diploid stage of plants producing spores.|
|5-||Archegonium||-||Female reproductive structure.|
|6-||Antheridium||-||Male reproductive structure.|
|7-||Megasporangium||-||The structure which bears megaspores.|
|8-||Sporophyll||-||Leaf bearing sporangia producing spores.|
|-||Numerical taxonomy||-||based on several features compared collectively by computer.|
|-||Cytotaxonomy||-||based on cytological features.|
|-||Chemotaxonomy||-||based on chemical constituent.|
|-||Group of chlorophyllous, simple, thalloid plants.|
|-||Largely aquatic, grow on soil, stone, wood etc or symbiotic.|
|-||Unicellular to large filamentous.|
Economically useful as-
a) Large photo synthesiser, release 02 .
b)Food for aquatic animals, humans.
c)Produce Algin (Brown algae), carrageen (red algae), agar (gelidium, gracilaria)
- Green algae chlorophyll a&b dominant.
- phycoerythrin (dominant) and others chlorophyll a and d.
Group of autotrophic plants with thallus having true roots, stem and leaves with multi cellular sex organs.
Occurs on damp, humid and shaded soil.
Root like rhizoids present.
-Main plant body gametophyte bears Antheridia and Archegonia. Biflagellate antherozoids produced from Antheridium and reach through water to egg in Archegonium.
-Zygote forms sporophyte which produces haploid spores to give rise to new plants.
Types of Bryophytes
1.Thallus dorsiventrally flattened (Liver shaped), leafy members with leaf like appendages.
- Thallus : Two stages (gametophyte) –
Vegetative by Fragmentation of protonema
|-||Group of first terrestrial plants having vascular tissue viz. Xylem & Phloem.|
|-||True stem, root & leaf.|
|-||Found on damp, shady places. Sporophyte makes main plant body.|
|-||Sporophylls of Sporophyte bear sporangia (sori) onventral side producing haploid spores.|
|-||spores give rise to Prothallus which is leafy & autotrophic.|
|-||Prothallus bears sex organs – male – Antheridium and female- Archegonium.|
|-||Fertilisation leads into zygote formation which produces diploid Sporophyte.|
|Heterospory and Seed habit:|
|-||Two types of spores Microspore and Megaspore are produced in some members viz. Selaginella, Salvinia.|
|-||Heterospory is considered as begining of seed habit in terrestrial plants.|
|eg. Pteris, Dryopteris etc.|
|-||Medium sized trees and shrubs.|
|-||Main plant body Sporophyte|
|-||In some members roots may have fungal association called Mycorrhiza.|
|-||Microspore i.e. pollens reaches to ovules.Pollen tubes help to transfer male gametes up to egg of archegonia present in female gametophyte of ovule.
|Zygote develops in an embryo inside seed|
|-||e.g. Cycas, Pinus ,Cedrusetc.|
|Large no. of plants in varied habitats, small microscopic plants (Wolfia) to large trees|
|-||Group of plants having covered seeds in fruits.|
|-||Produce flowers having reproductive organs.|
|-||Most evolved plants.|
-Androecium is male part and one unit is stamen.
-Gynoecium is female part and one unit is carpel and has ovules.
-Ovule bears embryo sac.
-Embryo sac is seven celled and has Egg
01 – haploid. Synergids
02 – haploid. Antipodals
03 - haploid. Secondary nucleus
04 – diploid.
-Reproduction by vegetative and sexual methods.
-In sexual reproduction pollens shed off and reach to stigma of Gynoecium by pollination.
-Pollen germinates to form pollen tube with two male gametes and one tube nucleus.
-One gamete fuses with egg (Syngamy) and other with secondary nucleus to form PEN (primary endosperm nucleus). The whole process is called Double fertilization.
-Zygote forms embryo and PEN forms Endosperm in ovule which changes into seed inside fruit.
-Ovary wall changes into Pericarp (fruit wall).
-Alternation of generation occours.
Plant life cycle and alternation of Generation –
-Alternate stages of haploid (n) and Diploid (2n) phase in life cycle of plants.
- Dominating phase haploid
eg. Algae viz. Ulothrix,Spirogyra etc.
-Dominating phase diploid
-Intermediate i.e.haploid &
eg. Bryophytes & Pteridophyte.
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