The present 2020-2021 revised syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. Motivating the topics from real life situations and other subject areas, greater emphasis has been laid on application of various concepts.
Sets and their representations.Empty set.Finite and Infinite sets.Equal sets.Subsets.Subsets of a set of real numbers especially intervals (with notations). Power set. Universal set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets.Difference of sets. Complement of a set. Properties of Complement.
Ordered pairs.Cartesian product of sets.Number of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets.Cartesian product of the set of reals with itself (upto R x R x R).Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams, domain, co-domain and range of a relation. Function as a special type of relation. Pictorial representation of a function, domain, co-domain and range of a function. Real valued functions, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum, exponential, logarithmic and greatest integer functions, with their graphs. Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions.
Positive and negative angles.Measuring angles in radians and in degrees and conversion from one measure to another.Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. Truth of the identity sin2x + cos2x = 1, for all x. Signs of trigonometric functions. Domain and range of trigonometric functions and their graphs.Expressing sin (x±y) and cos (x±y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx&cosy and their simple applications. Deducing identities like the following: tan(x ± y) = tan x ± tan y 1 ∓ tan x tan y , cot(x ± y) = cot x cot y ∓ 1 cot y ± cot x sinα ± sinβ = 2sin 1 2 (α ± β)cos 1 2 (α ∓ β) cosα + cosβ = 2cos 1 2 (α + β)cos 1 2 (α − β) ???? − ???? = −2??? 1 2 (? + ?)??? 1 2 (? − ?) Identities related to sin2x, cos2x, tan2 x, sin3x, cos3x and tan3x. General solution of trigonometric equations of the type siny = sina, cosy = cosa and tany = tana.
Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers as the least inductive subset of real numbers.The principle of mathematical induction and simple applications.
Need for complex numbers, especially√−1, to be motivated by inability to solve some of the quardratic equations. Algebraic properties of complex numbers.Argand plane and polar representation of complex numbers.Statement of Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, solution of quadratic equations (with real coefficients) in the complex number system.Square root of a complex number.
Linear inequalities.Algebraic solutions of linear inequalities in one variable and their representation on the number line.Graphical solution of linear inequalities in two variables.Graphical method of finding a solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables.
Fundamental principle of counting. Factorial n. (n!) Permutations and combinations, derivation ofFormulae forn??and n??and their connections, simple applications.
Historical perspective, statement and proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral indices.Pascals triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.
Sequence and Series. Arithmetic Progression (A. P.). Arithmetic Mean (A.M.) Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric mean (G.M.), relation between A.M. and G.M. Formulae for the following special sums. ? k ? ??? , ? k2 and ? k? ? ??? ? ???
Brief recall of two dimensional geometry from earlier classes. Shifting of origin. Slope of a line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point -slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form and normal form. General equation of a line.Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.Distance of a point from a line.
Sections of a cone: circles, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, a point, a straight line and a pair of intersecting lines as a degenerated case of a conic section. Standard equations and simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola.Standard equation of a circle.
Coordinate axes and coordinate planes in three dimensions. Coordinates of a point. Distance between two points and section formula.
Derivative introduced as rate of change both as that of distance function and geometrically.Intuitive idea of limit.Limits of polynomials and rational functions trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions.Definition of derivative relate it to scope of tangent of the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions.
Mathematically acceptable statements. Connecting words/ phrases - consolidating the understanding of if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition, implies, and/or, implied by, and, or, there exists and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathema tics. Validating the statements involving the connecting words, difference among contradiction, converse and contrapositive.
Measures of Dispersion: Range, Mean deviation, variance and standard deviation of ungrouped/grouped data. Analysis of frequency distributions with equal means but different variances.
Random experiments; outcomes, sample spaces (set representation). Events; occurrence of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic) probability, connections with other theories of earlier classes. Probability of an event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events.
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